Module 00103-09 Introduction to Hand Tools (2024)

MODULE 00103, Part 1

MODULE 00103-09

INTRODUCTION TO HAND TOOLS

(00103 LESSON 1 of 2)

SLIDE PRESENTATION

MODULE 00103, Part 1

SLIDE 1 Objectives

When you have completed this module, you will be able to do the following: 1. Recognize and identify some of the basic hand tools and their proper uses in the construction trade. 2. Visually inspect hand tools to determine if they are safe to use. 3. Safely use hand tools.

MODULE 00103, Part 1

SLIDE 2 1.0.0 INTRODUCTION

• Members of the construction trades use a large variety of hand tools. This module describes those tools, discusses their uses, and explains how to use them safely.

MODULE 00103, Part 1

SLIDE 3A 2.0.0 HAMMERS

• There are several types of hammers, and they come in different sizes and weights. Two of the most common types are the claw hammer and the ball peen hammer. • The claw hammer is used to drive nails, wedges, and dowels. The claw end is used to remove nails. • It is important to select a high-quality hammer. • It is easier to drive nails with a flat-faced Figure 1 Claw hammer. hammer, but the bell-faced hammer has a rounded face that allows the nail to be driven flush without damaging the work surface. • When using a claw hammer, hold it so the end of the handle is even with the lower edge of your palm. MODULE 00103, Part 1

SLIDE 3B

• Ball peen hammers are used with chisels and punches. The rounded end is used to round off rivets, align brackets, and perform other similar tasks. Welders also use these hammers. • Do not use a hammer with a cast head, as a chip could break off and injure you or someone else. • Play video on Slide 3C. Figure 2 Ball peen hammer.

MODULE 00103, Part 1

SLIDE 3C 2.0.0 HAMMERS

MODULE 00103, Part 1

SLIDE 4A 2.0.0 HAMMERS

• A sledgehammer is a heavy-duty tool used to drive stakes and posts. It is also used to break up cast iron and concrete. • The head of a sledgehammer is made of high-carbon steel. It may weigh from 2 to 20 pounds. • Play video on Slide 4B.

Figure 3 Sledgehammers.

MODULE 00103, Part 1

SLIDE 4B 2.0.0 HAMMERS

MODULE 00103, Part 1

SLIDE 5A 2.0.0 HAMMERS

• Always wear appropriate PPE such as steel-toed boots and eye protection when using a sledgehammer. • Never hold the object while it is being driven. Serious injury is likely if any part of the body is hit with the sledgehammer. • Play video on Slide 5B.

Figure 4 Proper use of a long-handled sledgehammer. MODULE 00103, Part 1

SLIDE 5B 2.0.0 HAMMERS

MODULE 00103, Part 1

SLIDE 6A 3.0.0 RIPPING BARS AND NAIL PULLERS

• Ripping bars and nail pullers are used to pull apart wood and pull nails. These tools are often needed for remodeling and repair jobs. • A ripping bar—also called a pinch, pry, or wrecking bar—can range from 12 to 36” long. It is used for dismantling woodwork such as building framing and concrete forms. • One end is used as a nail puller; the other end is used for prying apart materials that are nailed together. • There are three types of nail pullers: cat’s paw, chisel bar, and flat bar.

Figure 5 Ripping bars and nail pullers. MODULE 00103, Part 1

SLIDE 6B

• The cat’s paw is used to pull nails that are flush with, or slightly below, the surface. • The chisel bar can be used like a claw hammer to pull nails or can be driven into wood to split it and pull apart the pieces. • The flat bar can be used as a nail puller or as a small pry bar. • Be sure to wear appropriate PPE, especially eye protection, when using these tools. • To prevent injury when pulling a nail, be sure the material holding the nail is braced securely before you pull. • When using a wrecking bar, be sure to have balanced footing and keep a firm grip on the tool. You can lose your balance and fall when using a tool with this much leverage. • Play video on Slide 6C.

MODULE 00103, Part 1

SLIDE 6C 3.0.0 RIPPING BARS AND NAIL PULLERS

MODULE 00103, Part 1

SLIDE 7A 4.0.0 CHISELS AND PUNCHES

• Chisels are used to cut and shape wood, stone, or metal. Punches are used to indent metal, drive pins, and align holes. • A chisel has a sharpened, beveled edge. There are two types: wood chisels and cold chisels. • Play video on Slide 7B.

Figure 6 Cold and wood chisels.

MODULE 00103, Part 1

SLIDE 7B 4.0.0 CHISELS AND PUNCHES

MODULE 00103, Part 1

SLIDE 8 4.0.0 CHISELS AND PUNCHES

• One common use for a wood chisel is to make a recess for a door hinge. • Note that a mallet is used to strike a wood chisel. Also keep in mind that wood chisels are sharp and must be handled carefully.

Figure 7 Proper use of a wood chisel. MODULE 00103, Part 1

SLIDE 9 4.0.0 CHISELS AND PUNCHES

• A cold chisel can be used to cut off rivets, nuts, and bolts. • A holding tool should be used to hold the chisel in place when striking it. The cold chisel is struck with a ball peen hammer. Read the text for instructions on how to use a cold chisel. • When working with punches and chisels, wear safety goggles, and do not use a chisel head or hammer that has become mushroomed or flattened.

Figure 8 Chisel damage.

MODULE 00103, Part 1

SLIDE 10 4.0.0 CHISELS AND PUNCHES

• Punches are made of hardened and tempered steel. There are three types of punches. • One common use for a punch is to make an indentation at the place where you want to drill a hole. This makes it easier to start the hole. • A punch can also be used to punch a hole in sheet metal.

Figure 9 Punches.

MODULE 00103, Part 1

SLIDE 11 5.0.0 SCREWDRIVERS

• A screwdriver is used to tighten or remove screws. A screwdriver is identified by the type of screw it is used with. • The slotted (standard) and Phillips- head screwdriver are the most common types.

Figure 10 Common screw heads.

MODULE 00103, Part 1

SLIDE 12 5.0.0 SCREWDRIVERS

• A screwdriver has three distinct parts: a handle, a shank, and a blade. Most blades are made of tempered steel.

Figure 11 Slotted and Phillips-head screwdrivers.

MODULE 00103, Part 1

SLIDE 13 5.0.0 SCREWDRIVERS

• A screwdriver must have the right size blade for the job. Using the wrong size can damage the screw. • When using a screwdriver, apply firm, steady pressure. • Never use a screwdriver near live wires or as an electrical tester.

Figure 12 Proper use of a screwdriver. MODULE 00103, Part 1

SLIDE 14A 6.0.0 PLIERS AND WIRE CUTTERS

• Pliers can be thought of as a type of wrench. You will use pliers to hold, cut, and bend wire and soft metals. • Pliers should not be used on nuts and bolts, as pliers are likely to round the edges of the six-sided head, so that wrenches will no longer fit properly. • High-quality pliers are made of hardened steel. There are several types.

Figure 13 Types of pliers. MODULE 00103, Part 1

SLIDE 14B

• Slip-joint pliers have adjustable jaws. They are used to hold objects and to hold and bend wire. • Slip-joint pliers have two settings, so they can handle different sizes of material. • Needle-nose pliers are used to get into tight places or to grip parts that are too small to hold with your fingers. They have a sharp wire cutter near the pivot point. • Some needle-nose pliers have a spring between the handles to keep them open and ready to use. • Lineman pliers have wide jaws, which makes it easier for them to hold and bend heavy wire. The handles are designed to provide a strong grip. • When cutting wire with lineman pliers, always point the loose end of the wire down.

MODULE 00103, Part 1

SLIDE 15 6.0.0 PLIERS AND WIRE CUTTERS

• Tongue-and-groove pliers have serrated teeth that grip flat, square, round, or hexagonal objects. • Tongue-and-groove pliers have five different settings, which are selected by slipping the curved ridge into the desired groove. • Large tongue-and-groove pliers are used to handle larger objects such as pipes.

Figure 14 Proper use of tongue-and-groove pliers.

MODULE 00103, Part 1

SLIDE 16 6.0.0 PLIERS AND WIRE CUTTERS

Locking pliers clamp onto an object the way a vise does. The adjusting knob in the handle controls the width and tension of the jaws. • Squeeze the handles to fasten onto an object. Squeeze the lever between the handles to release the pliers. • When using pliers, hold the handles near the ends to avoid Figure 15 Proper use of locking pliers. pinching your fingers. This is especially true for needle-nose pliers.

MODULE 00103, Part 1

SLIDE 17A 7.0.0 WRENCHES

• Wrenches are used to hold and turn screws, nuts, and bolts that have octagonal (six-sided) heads. Some wrenches are designed to hold and turn threaded pipes. • There are adjustable and nonadjustable wrenches. A nonadjustable wrench fits only one size nut or bolt. They are available in English and metric sizes. Adjustable wrenches can be adjusted to fit different-sized nuts and bolts. • There are four common types of nonadjustable wrenches. An open-end wrench has an opening at each end. The two openings may be different sizes. • Box-end wrenches have six or twelve points. They are easier to use because they provide a firmer grip and will not slip off the nut or bolt. • Allen® wrenches, often called hex key wrenches, are made to fit the socket of a hex head screw or bolt. They are often used to tighten setscrews. • Combination wrenches have an open end on one end and a box end on the other.

MODULE 00103, Part 1

SLIDE 17B

Figure 16 Nonadjustable wrenches. MODULE 00103, Part 1

SLIDE 18 7.0.0 WRENCHES

• Striking or slugging wrenches are made to be hit with a mallet or hammer. They are often used to loosen nuts and bolts that are stuck because of rust or corrosion. • When using a nonadjustable wrench, always use one that fits snugly on the nut or bolt. Pull it toward you rather than pushing it away from you.

Figure 17 Striking wrenches.

MODULE 00103, Part 1

SLIDE 19 7.0.0 WRENCHES

• Adjustable wrenches have one fixed jaw and one movable jaw. The opening is adjusted by turning the adjusting nut. The use of this wrench can save time when working with different-size nuts and bolts. • Pipe wrenches, also called monkey wrenches, are used to hold and turn threaded pipe. The jaw is spring-loaded, so the wrench can be repositioned without readjusting the jaw.

Figure 18 Adjustable wrenches. MODULE 00103, Part 1

SLIDE 20 7.0.0 WRENCHES

• When using an adjustable wrench, adjust the jaws so they fit the head tightly and turn the wrench so you are putting pressure on the fixed jaw. • Do not use an English wrench for a metric fitting and vice versa. Doing so is likely to round the edges of the bolt or nut, making it very difficult to remove.

Figure 19 Proper use of an adjustable wrench. MODULE 00103, Part 1

SLIDE 21 8.0.0 SOCKETS AND RATCHETS

• Sockets are sized like nonadjustable wrenches to fit specific sizes of nut and bolts. They come in both English and metric sizes.

Figure 20 Sockets.

MODULE 00103, Part 1

SLIDE 22 8.0.0 SOCKETS AND RATCHETS

• The ratchet is the handle used to turn the socket. It can be set to tighten or loosen a nut or bolt. • Like wrenches, most sockets have 6 or 12 gripping points. • Many socket sets have different-size Figure 21 Ratchet handle. sockets and ratchet drives for different types of work. • When using a socket set, never force the ratchet handle beyond hand-tight, and never use a cheater pipe or other device to obtain greater leverage.

MODULE 00103, Part 1

SLIDE 23 9.0.0 TORQUE WRENCHES

• Torque wrenches measure resistance to turning. They are used to tighten fasteners that must be turned in a specific sequence. • A torque wrench is also used when a manufacturer or designer specifies the amount of torque to be applied to a bolt.

Figure 22 Torque wrenches.

MODULE 00103, Part 1

SLIDE 24 9.0.0 TORQUE WRENCHES

• Torque specifications are usually stated in inch-pounds for small fasteners and foot-pounds for larger fasteners. • It is important to determine how much torque needs to be applied and the sequence in which the bolts must be turned. • Hold the head of the wrench with one hand when tightening a bolt. • Depending on the type of wrench, you will observe the torque reading on the wrench or hear a clicking sound when the selected torque setting is reached. Figure 23 Proper use of a torque wrench.

MODULE 00103, Part 1

SLIDE 25 10.0.0 RULES AND OTHER MEASURING TOOLS

• Craftworkers use four types of measuring devices: flat steel rule, measuring tape, wooden folding rule, and laser measuring device. • When choosing a measuring device, make sure the numbers are easy to read. • The flat steel rule is usually 6 or 12” long, but longer ones are available. • A thin rule is likely to be more accurate than a thick one, because the division marks are closer to the work. • A typical steel rule has two sets of division marks on each side.

Figure 24 Steel rule. MODULE 00103, Part 1

SLIDE 26 10.0.0 RULES AND OTHER MEASURING TOOLS

• Measuring tapes come in a variety of lengths and widths. They are flexible enough to roll up inside the case, but rigid enough to lay flat when extended.

Figure 25 Standard tape measure.

MODULE 00103, Part 1

SLIDE 27 10.0.0 RULES AND OTHER MEASURING TOOLS

• A wooden folding rule is usually calibrated in 16ths of an inch. • The wooden folding rule is rigid, so it can be used to measure vertical distances without bending.

Figure 26 Wooden folding rule.

MODULE 00103, Part 1

SLIDE 28 10.0.0 RULES AND OTHER MEASURING TOOLS

• A laser measuring tool can be considered a battery-powered, electronic version of a tape measure. • The device is pointed at the object and the measurement button is pushed. A laser shoots out at the object, and a measurement reading is sent back to the device, where it is displayed on a screen. • A laser measuring tool has several advantages, one of which is the capability to take longer measurements.

Figure 27 Laser measuring tool.

MODULE 00103, Part 1

SLIDE 29 11.0.0 LEVELS

• A level is used to determine how level a horizontal surface is and how plumb a vertical surface is. • The spirit level is the most common type of level in use, but laser levels are becoming more common.

Figure 28 Spirit levels.

MODULE 00103, Part 1

SLIDE 30 11.0.0 LEVELS

• The spirit level has three vials filled with alcohol. The position of the air bubble in the vial indicates the degree of level or plumb. • If the air bubble is centered between the lines on the vial, the surface is level or plumb. • Keep in mind that the vials are fragile. If you abuse or drop your level, you may damage or dislodge the vials.

Figure 29 An air bubble centered between the lines shows level or plumb. MODULE 00103, Part 1

SLIDE 31 11.0.0 LEVELS

• Digital levels have digital readouts of inches per foot and degrees or percentage of slope as well as a simulated bubble.

Figure 30 Digital (electronic) level.

MODULE 00103, Part 1

SLIDE 32 11.0.0 LEVELS

• Laser levels are used to level foundations, establish slopes, square framing, and for a variety of other purposes.

Figure 31 Laser levels. MODULE 00103, Part 1

End of Presentation

Module 00103-09 Introduction to Hand Tools (2024)
Top Articles
Latest Posts
Article information

Author: Van Hayes

Last Updated:

Views: 5905

Rating: 4.6 / 5 (46 voted)

Reviews: 85% of readers found this page helpful

Author information

Name: Van Hayes

Birthday: 1994-06-07

Address: 2004 Kling Rapid, New Destiny, MT 64658-2367

Phone: +512425013758

Job: National Farming Director

Hobby: Reading, Polo, Genealogy, amateur radio, Scouting, Stand-up comedy, Cryptography

Introduction: My name is Van Hayes, I am a thankful, friendly, smiling, calm, powerful, fine, enthusiastic person who loves writing and wants to share my knowledge and understanding with you.